- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is also known as Al-Mamlakah al-ʿArabiyyah al-Suʿūdiyyah in Arabic is the largest country in the Middle East, with an area of 2.24 million sq. km. (nearly 2/3rd the size of India), is the 14th largest country in the world.
- One-third of Saudi Arabia is desert, which includes a major portion of the world’s largest contiguous sand desert known as the Empty Quarter (Rub-al-Khali).
Saudi Arabia is bordered on the west by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, and to the east by the Arabian Gulf. It shares borders with Yemen (1458 km) and the Sultanate of Oman (676 km) on the south; Jordan (728 km), Iraq (814 km), and Kuwait (222 km) on the north, and UAE (457km) and Qatar (60km) on the east, with the Island of Bahrain located off the eastern coast in the Arabian Gulf.
Summer: In the inland regions including Capital Riyadh, the summer (May to September) day temperatures average around 45oC, with readings over 50oC are not unusual, followed by cool nights,.
Winter (November to March) day temperatures vary between 8oC and 20oC, with night temperatures rarely dropping below 0°C.
Along the coastal regions, such as Jeddah, in summer day temperatures are around 38° C, but with high relative humidity, while winter temperatures are between 19o C and 29o
Brief rainy season is normally between January and May when sudden downpours followed by flash floods are not uncommon.
From late-February to mid-July, sand storms are experienced. In the South-West, Asir Province with highest mountain peaks in the country and influenced by monsoons, receives about 300-500 mm of rainfall annually, has a more moderate climate.
- Petroleum Reserves
Saudi Arabia possesses around 17 per cent of the world’s proven petroleum reserves. The oil and gas sector accounts for about 50 per cent of gross domestic product, and about 70 per cent of export earnings.
- Trading Partner
Saudi Arabia is India’s fourth largest trade partner (after China, USA and Japan) and a major source of energy as India imports around 18% of its crude oil requirement and 30 % of its LPG requirement from the Kingdom.
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